This study measures the emissions factor for elements of a trip that is purchased directly from the user of carbonscored. Any additional activity or services undertaken by a customer outside of the package is out of scope. This includes transfers to and from international travel, additional meals or activities.

The areas in scope for this study include:
● Accommodation (including meals)
● Activities (customers purchase at time of booking)
● International and internal flights
● Transfers, self driving tours
● Guides
● Tour operator office emissions

This study analyses primary data provided directly from suppliers, providers and operators though specific surveys relating to each major emissions factor under the GHG protocol; gas, fuel, electricity, water. Where surveys are not fully completed, relevant industry averages provided by DEFRA are used t o provide a value that is as accurate as possible. Any assumptions that are required to fill data gaps, will be detailed against the specific category to which it relates.

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Key assumptions

● The study provides emissions factor for 1 night stay in an accommodation based on a double occupancy room with occupancy levels of 1.9 people per room.
● It is assumed t hat 50% of emissions come from general spaces in accommodation and 50% from hotel rooms and therefore this study assumes the data provided includes total emissions required t o operate a room f or 1 night.
● If a property has AC, heated swimming pools and does not outsource laundry requirements, it is assumed t hat these services are in operation and accounted for in total emissions
● For Safari lodges, it is assumed 2 game drives are included per 1 night stay. For results driven from secondary data, 19.6kg CO2e is added to the total score.

● Any activities not booked and offered directly by the operator are out of scope for the purposes of this study. Only activities that consume any gas, electricity or provide meals are in scope, any activities e.g. guided walks that are considered carbon neutral are not measured. Any activity booked in destination or prior to arrival through a different operator are not included in the overall emissions factor. The emissions factors for activities will be calculated on a per person basis.
● For safari lodges it is assumed (unless otherwise stated) that 2 game drives are included per 1 night stay and dual purpose 4×4 diesel vehicles are used
● Urban and beach accommodation can offer a wide range of activities, often outsourced to a local supplier or provider. These activities are booked by the customer in t he destination and are therefore not considered

● The study uses the DEFRA standards and assumptions to calculate emissions from flights and includes the influence of radiative forcing RF in air travel emissions.
● The distances travelled are calculated using the air miles calculator
● For any other aircraft such as private or light aircraft, the following assumptions have been made; aircraft typically used is the 9 seater Cessna Caravan 208

Transfers, Self driving and Guides
● Transfers will be calculated per vehicle unless the vehicle is used on a shared basis in which case t he CO2e emissions will be calculated per seat. Private transfers assume a return journey due to vehicle needing t o be returned to the pick up location
● Emissions will be calculated from distances travelled (km) and will be based on the ‘ fastest route’ available data as provided on
● It is assumed vehicles will be majority diesel powered 4×4 or a minibus
● It is assumed t hat guides have full board each day (3x meals) and the country averages for kg CO2e will be used per night to calculate the total emissions for the guide

● A 2.57kg CO2e average will be used for the CO2e factor for each meal provided per person. This is taken f rom the ‘ Carbon Footprint of Food’ 2011 published by the Journal for cleaner production which calculates an average footprint of 7.7kg CO2e f or all meals consumed in a day by one person.

Reporting Period
The study was conducted in 2020 but has been designed to improve year on year with the improvement in the quality and quantity of data. Both primary and secondary data will be collected on an ongoing basis to improve the quality of the results. Suppliers such as hotels, have the opportunity to update their survey responses year on year with changes they have made to their operations.

A review process has been put in place to make sure that improvements can be made to the framework based on new research and user feedback. If improvements can be made to increase the accuracy as well as t he user process, these changes will be actioned on an ongoing basis. For feedback on t he framework or to share ideas, please contact

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Appendix 1